Wooley-necked Stork

Ciconia episcopus

Bird

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At a Glance
Wingspan175cm Height: 85cm
Mass1.8kg
Lifespan20years
Conservation StatusNear-threatened in South Africa

Description

The Woolly-necked Stork is a large bird, typically 85 cm tall. It is all black except for the woolly white neck and white lower belly. The upperparts are glossed dark green, and the breast and belly have a purple hue. Juvenile birds are duller versions of the adult.

Behaviour

This species is usually seen alone, walking about slowly on the ground and along water. It picks up the preys with the long bill. It is also attracted to termite emergences.

Although not very gregarious, it may be seen sometimes in pairs or small groups near water, but they rarely wade.
This stork is often seen standing motionless.

Diet

The species is predominantly carnivorous, its diet consisting of fish, frogs, toads, snakes, lizards, large insects and larvae, crabs, molluscs and marine invertebrates. It forages by slowly walking through water or vegetation, stabbing at prey.

Breeding

Monogamous and usually a solitary nester, although it may breed in loose colonies of 4-5 pairs.

The nest is built by both sexes, consisting of a platform of sticks with a central bowl lined with fine twigs, grass and green leaves. It is typically placed in the fork of a horizontal branch of a large tree, 10-50 metres above ground or water.

Egg-laying season is from August-December.

It lays 2-4 eggs, which are incubated by both sexes for about 30-31 days.
The chicks are fed and brooded by both parents, leaving the nest to roost in a nearby tree at about 55-65 days old, becoming fully independent roughly three weeks later.


Distribution

Occurs from India and Sri Lanka to the Philippines, with a separate population in sub-Saharan Africa. In southern Africa, it is uncommon in Mozambique, northern and southern Zimbabwe, northern Botswana, northern Namibia (including the Caprivi Strip) and eastern South Africa.

Habitat

It can occupy almost any wetland habitat, generally preferring flood plains, rivers, pans, ponds, dams, lagoons, swamp forests, mangrove swamps, tidal mudflats, estuaries and also man-made habitats, including golf courses, firebreaks and roads in plantations.

Threat

Not threatened globally, although Near-threatened in South Africa, due to low population numbers largely caused by habitat destruction.

Local Information

Until a few years ago these birds were hardly ever seen in the Kloof area but since the late 2000’s the numbers have steadily increased.

They can be often seen in Memorial Park and there is a nest in the pine tree at the intersection of Alamein Avenue and Buckingham Road.

This species now appears to be resident in the area.

Interesting Facts

The Woolly-necked Storks are solitary nesters and both mates probably stay together all year round. As other Ciconiidae species, they perform the usual courtship displays. They make bill-clatters at nest, with the head resting back on the upper back.

The scientific name “episcopus” means ‘bishop’ and is derived from the black “skullcap” typical on these birds.

Sound

A sound clip is available on SoundCloud.

isiThandamanzi

Ciconia episcopus

iNyoni

Ukujeqeza
Ububanzi bamphikoIzimpiko: 175 cm Ukuphakama: 85 cm
Isisindo1.8kg
Ukuphila20 iminyaka
Umumo Ngokongiwa1.8kg

Incazelo

Isithandamanzi inyoni enkulu, uqobo 85 cm ubude. Zonke zimnyama ngaphandle kwentamo emhlophe enoboya kanye nengaphansi lesisu esimhlophe. Indawo engaphezulu iyacwebezela nokuluhlaza ngokuphaphathekile, kanti amabele nesisu nesibhelu esinsomi. Izinyoni ezincane zibuthuntu ukuhumushela abadala.

Ukuziphatha

Lenhlobo ivame ukubonakala yodwa, ihamba kancane phansi nangasemanzini. Icosha into eyidlayo ngomlomo wayo omude. Ibuye idobe izinhlwabusi ngokuphuthuma.

Nakubazingahambi ngemihlambi, ingabonakala hlambe kwesinye isikhathi zimbili noma umhlambi omncane eduze namanzi, kodwa zinqabile ukubhoxoza umfulalonogolantethe uvame ukubonakala umile unganyakazi

Ukudla

Lenhlobo inamandla adlulayo enyameni, zidla okungaba ufishi, amaxoxo, izinana, izinyoka, izibankwa, izilokazane ezinkulu kanye nezibungu, izinkalankala, izinkovu nezivemvane. Zigwaba ngokuhamba kancane emanzini noma kwizimila, zihlabe ezikudlayo.

Ukuzalana

Kumfazi munye kanti kuvame ukuba kodwa esidlekeni, nakuba kungazalela ngokombuso ongaba ngu 4-5 wophathina.

Isidleke sakhiwa ubulili bobubili, enziwe umganga wezinti nebholi eliphakathi nendawo. Lahlukaniswa inswani ecoliweyo, utshani namaqabunga aluhlaza. Kubekwe qobo kwibhaxa eqabungeni eliqondile lesihlahla esikhulu, 10-50m ngaphezu komhlaba noma amanzi.

Isikhathi sokubeka amaqanda kusuka ku-Ncwaba kuya ku-Zibandlela.

Ibeka 2-4 amaqanda afukanyelwa ubulili bobubili okungaba 30-31 izinsuku. Amatshwele afunzwa futhi akhuliswa abazali bobabili, bashiya isidleke othini eduze nesihlahla okungaba 55-65 izinsuku zobudala, liqala ukuzimela ngo kugcwele cishe emva kwamasonto amathathu.



Ukusabalala

Kuncike kusuka e-India nase-Sri Lanka kuya e-Philippines, ngokuhlukana kwabahlali e-sub-Saharan Afrika, eningizimu ne-Afrika, akuvamanga e-Mozambique, nyakatho kanye neningizimu Zimbabwe, nyakatho Botswana, nyakatho Namibia (sibala ne-Caprivi Strip) kanye noMzansi Afrika.

Inhlalo

Ingahlala cishe noma kuyiphi indawo eswakeme kusikhungo, ngokujwayelekile incamela indawo yezi khukhula esobabla, emifuleni, kumachitshana, kuziziba, kumadamu, emtateni, kumaxhaphozi amahlathi, kwindobela esodakeni, emfudlaneni kanye nasezikhungweni ezakhiwe, singabala izinkundla zegalofu, izindawo zokosa, nasemgaqweni otshalwe imithi.

Zisebungozini

Azinakho kuwowonke umhlaba, nakuba zicishe zibe nakho eNingizimu Afrika, ngenxa yokuba phansi kwesibalo sabahlali kakhulu okwenziwa isibhicongo sesikhungo.

Ulwazi lwendawo

Kuze kuba iminyaka embalwa edlule lezinyoni bekunzima ukuzibona endaweni yase Kloof kodwa kusukela kamumva kweminyaka yama 2000’s izinombolo zenyukile kancane.

Singazibona ngokuvama e-Memorial Park futhi kunesidleke kusihlahla sephayini kwizinhlukano zika-Alamein Avenue no Buckingham Road.

Lenhlobo manje luvela njengoluhlala khona endaweni.

Amaqiniso Ahehayo

Isithandamanzi ahlala wodwa esidlekeni kanti bobabili ophathina kungathithi bahlala ndawonye unyaka wonke. Njengolunye uhlobo lwe Ciconiidae, zenza umbukiso wokuqomisa. Zenza imfuhlumfuhlu ngomlomo wenyoni esidlekeni, nekhanda libheke emumva lapho kuphakeme khona ngemumva.

Umsindo

Iklipha yombindo itholakala kwiSoundCloud